Carbohydrate polymers

Synthesis of thiolated polysaccharides for formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers with improved cellular adhesion.

PMID 27987824


Intrinsic cross-linking is not only useful for increasing stability, but also for tailoring mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) on implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. Here, a novel route for synthesizing thiolated chitosan (t-Chi) based on the application of 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid was applied, while thiolated chondroitin sulfate (t-CS) was conjugated by 3,3'-dithiobis (propanoic hydrazide). Both products were subsequently reduced to obtain the free thiols. The thiol content, structural changes and degree of substitution were studied by UV-vis, FTIR, Raman and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Chi and CS can be used for PEM formation with the layer-by-layer method, due to the cationic nature of Chi at pH values below 5.0 and the anionic character of CS. Comparative studies on the formation of native Chi/CS versus t-Chi/t-CS PEM with surface plasmon resonance and ellipsometry revealed higher layer mass. We also found that the PEM composed of t-Chi/t-CS had superior cell adhesion properties for human keratinocytes in comparison to the native PEM.

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