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Environmental science & technology

Detailed Analysis of Criteria and Particle Emissions from a Very Large Crude Carrier Using a Novel ECA Fuel.


PMID 28050905

Abstract

Ocean going vessels (OGVs) operating within emission control areas (ECA) are required to use fuels with ≤0.1 wt % sulfur. Up to now only distillate fuels could meet the sulfur limits. Recently refiners created a novel low-sulfur heavy-fuel oil (LSHFO) meeting the sulfur limits so questions were posed whether nitric oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were the same for the two fuels. This project characterized criteria pollutants and undertook a detailed analysis of PM emissions from a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) using a distillate ECA fuel (MGO) and novel LSHFO. Results showed emission factors of NOx were ∼5% higher with MGO than LSHFO. PM2.5 emission factors were ∼3 times higher with LSHFO than MGO, while both were below values reported by Lloyds, U.S. EPA and CARB. A detailed analysis of PM revealed it was >90% organic carbon (OC) for both fuels. Elemental carbon (EC) and soot measured with an AVL microsoot sensor (MSS) reflected black carbon. PM size distributions showed unimodal peaks for both MGO (20-30 nm) and LSHFO (30-50 nm). Particle number (PN) emissions were 28% and 17% higher with the PPS-M compared to the SMPS for LSHFO and MGO, respectively.

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