European journal of biochemistry

Thermodynamic nonideality in enzyme catalysis. Effect of albumin on the reduction of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase.

PMID 2806266


The enhanced catalytic reduction of pyruvate by rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase that results from the addition of serum albumin [Nichol, L. W., Sculley, M. J., Ward, L. D. & Winzor, D. J. (1983) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 222, 574-581] is shown to emanate solely from an increase in maximal velocity, there being no discernible effect of this inert space-filling macromolecular solute on the Michaelis constant for either pyruvate or NADH. As part of the search for a mechanistic explanation of this kinetic phenomenon, the space-filling effects of albumin have been used to eliminate the possibility that the increase in sedimentation coefficient of lactate dehydrogenase effected by inclusion of oxamate with enzyme-NADH complex reflects preferential binding of this pyruvate analog to a more compact isomeric state of the binary complex. The enzyme kinetic results are therefore considered in terms of a reaction scheme entailing gross conformational changes during the formation of ternary enzyme-NADH-pyruvate complex and its isomerization to an activated transition state. The experimentally observed insensitivity of the Michaelis constant for pyruvate to albumin concentration is in keeping with theoretical prediction, but incorporation of the measured extent of maximal velocity enhancement into the kinetic model leads to a predicted volume for the fully saturated transition-state complex that is far too small to be experimentally feasible. A more complex mechanistic model involving additional isomerizations of enzyme-substrate species is thus required to achieve quantitative description of the albumin effect solely in terms of thermodynamic nonideality.