Journal of virology

Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Upregulates APOBEC3B via the TEAD Transcription Factor.

PMID 28077648


The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) underlies the genetic heterogeneity of several human cancers, including cervical cancer, which is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We previously identified a region within the A3B promoter that is activated by the viral protein HPV16 E6 in human keratinocytes. Here, we discovered three sites recognized by the TEAD family of transcription factors within this region of the A3B promoter. Reporter assays in HEK293 cells showed that exogenously expressed TEAD4 induced A3B promoter activation through binding to these sites. Normal immortalized human keratinocytes expressing E6 (NIKS-E6) displayed increased levels of TEAD1/4 protein compared to parental NIKS. A series of E6 mutants revealed that E6-mediated degradation of p53 was important for increasing TEAD4 levels. Knockdown of TEADs in NIKS-E6 significantly reduced A3B mRNA levels, whereas ectopic expression of TEAD4 in NIKS increased A3B mRNA levels. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated increased levels of TEAD4 binding to the A3B promoter in NIKS-E6 compared to NIKS. Collectively, these results indicate that E6 induces upregulation of A3B through increased levels of TEADs, highlighting the importance of the TEAD-A3B axis in carcinogenesis.