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American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation

Serum Asymmetric and Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Morbidity and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.


PMID 28089476

Abstract

Asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are putative uremic toxins that may exert toxicity by a number of mechanisms, including impaired nitric oxide synthesis and generation of reactive oxygen species. The study goal was to determine the association between these metabolites and cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Post hoc analysis of the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. 1,276 prevalent hemodialysis patients with available samples 3 to 6 months after randomization. ADMA and SDMA measured in stored specimens. Cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, first cardiovascular event, and any-cause death. Association with predictors analyzed using Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders (including demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions, albumin level, and residual kidney function). Mean age of patients was 57±14 (SD) years, 63% were black, and 57% were women. Mean ADMA (0.9±0.2μmol/L) and SDMA levels (4.3±1.4μmol/L) were moderately correlated (r=0.418). Higher dialysis dose or longer session length were not associated with lower predialysis ADMA or SDMA concentrations. In fully adjusted models, each doubling of ADMA level was associated with higher risk (HR per 2-fold higher concentration; 95% CI) of cardiac death (1.83; 1.29-2.58), sudden cardiac death (1.79; 1.19-2.69), first cardiovascular event (1.50; 1.20-1.87), and any-cause death (1.44; 1.13-1.83). Compared to the lowest ADMA quintile (<0.745 μmol/L), the highest ADMA quintile (≥1.07μmol/L) was associated with higher risk (HR; 95% CI) of cardiac death (2.10; 1.44-3.05), sudden cardiac death (2.06; 1.46-2.90), first cardiovascular event (1.75; 1.35-2.27), and any-cause death (1.56; 1.21-2.00). SDMA level was associated with higher risk for cardiac death (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92), but this was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for ADMA level (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.86-1.68). Single time-point measurement of ADMA and SDMA. ADMA and, to a lesser extent, SDMA levels are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients.

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