Journal of avian medicine and surgery

The Influence of a Combined Butorphanol and Midazolam Premedication on Anesthesia in Psittacid Species.

PMID 28107080


Premedication is considered routine for domestic animal and human anesthesia but is rarely applied to avian patients, and few controlled studies exist to document effects of premedication in avian species. To determine the effects of a butorphanol and midazolam premedication on general anesthesia and quality of induction and recovery phases in psittacid species, 17 clinically healthy birds undergoing anesthesia were randomly allocated into either a premedicated or control group. Anesthetic parameters were subsequently compared. Induction time and isoflurane concentration required for anesthetic maintenance were reduced in the premedicated group. Induction quality scores were improved in the premedicated group and no adverse effects on anesthesia and cardiovascular stability were observed. Use of a combined butorphanol and midazolam premedication in clinically healthy psittacine birds appears safe and effective. Premedication provides a beneficial effect at induction and enables maintenance levels of anesthetic gas to be reduced.