Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry

Evidence that d-cysteine protects mice from gastric damage via hydrogen sulfide produced by d-amino acid oxidase.

PMID 28137610


Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. H2S production can derive from d-cysteine via various pathways, thus pointing to a new therapeutic approach: delivery of H2S to specific tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the concentration and effects of H2S (generated by d-amino acid oxidase [DAO] from d-cysteine) in the gastric mucosa and the protective effects against ethanol-induced lesions in mice. Mice were treated with l-cysteine or d-cysteine (100xa0mg/kg per os). Other groups received oral l-propargylglycine (cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor, 100xa0mg/kg) or indole-2-carboxylate (DAO inhibitor), and 30xa0min later, received d- or l-cysteine. After 30xa0min, 50% ethanol (2.5xa0mL/kg, per os) was administered. After 1xa0h, the mice were euthanized and their stomachs excised and analyzed. Pretreatment with either l-cysteine or d-cysteine significantly reduced ethanol-induced lesions. Pretreatment of d-cysteine- or l-cysteine-treated groups with indole-2-carboxylate reversed the gastroprotective effects of d-cysteine but not l-cysteine. Histological analysis revealed that pretreatment with d-cysteine decreased hemorrhagic damage, edema, and the loss of the epithelium, whereas the administration of indole-2-carboxylate reversed these effects. d-Cysteine also reduced malondialdehyde levels but maintained the levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, pretreatment with d-cysteine increased the synthesis of H2S. Thus, an H2S-generating pathway (involving d-cysteine and DAO) is present in the gastric mucosa and protects this tissue from ethanol-induced damage by decreasing direct oxidative damage.

Related Materials