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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gene polymorphism linked to increased asthma and IBD risk alters gasdermin-B structure, a sulfatide and phosphoinositide binding protein.


PMID 28154144

Abstract

The exact function of human gasdermin-B (GSDMB), which regulates differentiation and growth of epithelial cells, is yet to be elucidated. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, GSDMB gene amplification and protein overexpression indicate a poor response to HER2-targeted therapy. Genome-wide association studies revealed a correlation between GSDMB SNPs and an increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and asthma. The N- and C-terminal domains of all gasdermins possess lipid-binding and regulatory activities, respectively. Inflammatory caspases cleave gasdermin-D in the interdomain linker but not GSDMB. The cleaved N-terminal domain binds phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, forms membrane-disrupting pores, and executes pyroptosis. We show that both full-length GSDMB and the N-terminal domain bind to nitrocellulose membranes immobilized with phosphoinositides or sulfatide, but not with cardiolipin. In addition, the GSDMB N-terminal domain binds liposomes containing sulfatide. The crystal structure of the GSDMB C-terminal domain reveals the structural impact of the amino acids encoded by SNPs that are linked to asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A loop that carries the polymorphism amino acids corresponding to healthy individuals (Gly299:Pro306) exhibits high conformational flexibility, whereas the loop carrying amino acids found in individuals with increased disease risk (Arg299:Ser306) exhibits a well-defined conformation and higher positive surface charge. Apoptotic executioner caspase-3, -6, and -7, but not the inflammatory caspases, cleave GSDMB at 88DNVD91 within the N-terminal domain. Selective sulfatide binding may indicate possible function for GSDMB in the cellular sulfatide transport.

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