Journal of epidemiology

Development of the Japanese version of the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire and its simplified versions, and evaluation of their reliability, validity, and reproducibility.

PMID 28162889


Because few Japanese questionnaires assess the elderly's appetite, there is an urgent need to develop an appetite questionnaire with verified reliability, validity, and reproducibility. We translated and back-translated the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ), which has eight items, into Japanese (CNAQ-J), as well as the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ-J), which includes four CNAQ-J-derived items. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the CNAQ-J structure based on data of 649 Japanese elderly people in 2013, including individuals having a certain degree of cognitive impairment, and we developed the SNAQ for the Japanese elderly (SNAQ-JE) according to an exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analyses on the appetite questionnaires were conducted to probe fitting to the model. We computed Cronbach's α coefficients and criterion-referenced/-related validity figures examining associations of the three appetite battery scores with body mass index (BMI) values and with nutrition-related questionnaire values. Test-retest reproducibility of appetite tools was scrutinized over an approximately 2-week interval. An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the CNAQ-J was constructed of one factor (appetite), yielding the SNAQ-JE, which includes four questions derived from the CNAQ-J. The three appetite instruments showed almost equivalent fitting to the model and reproducibility. The CNAQ-J and SNAQ-JE demonstrated satisfactory reliability and significant criterion-referenced/-related validity values, including BMIs, but the SNAQ-J included a low factor-loading item, exhibited less satisfactory reliability and had a non-significant relationship to BMI. The CNAQ-J and SNAQ-JE may be applied to assess the appetite of Japanese elderly, including persons with some cognitive impairment.