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Cellular signalling

GPR43 activation enhances psoriasis-like inflammation through epidermal upregulation of IL-6 and dual oxidase 2 signaling in a murine model.


PMID 28212864

Abstract

The gut is densely inhabited by commensal bacteria, which metabolize dietary fibers/undigested carbohydrates and produce short-chain fatty acids such as acetate. GPR43 is one of the receptors to sense short-chain fatty acids, and expressed in various immune and non-immune cells. Acetate/GPR43 signaling has been shown to affect various inflammatory diseases through Th17 responses and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, no study has previously explored the effects of GPR43 activation during psoriasis-like inflammation. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of acetate/phenylacetamide (GPR43 agonists) on imiquimod induced skin inflammation in mice. Mice were administered phenylacetamide/acetate followed by assessment of skin inflammation, NOXs (NOX-2, NOX-4, dual oxidases), and Th17 related signaling. Our study showed induction of epidermal GPR43 after imiquimod treatment, i.e. psoriasis-like inflammation. Acetate administration in psoriatic mice led to further increase in skin inflammation (ear thickness/myeloperoxidase activity) with concurrent increase in Th17 immune responses and epidermal dual oxidase-2 signaling. Further, topical application of GPR43 agonist, phenylacetamide led to enhanced ear thickness with concomitant epidermal IL-6 signaling as well as dual oxidase-2 upregulation which may be responsible for increased psoriasis-like inflammation. Taken together, dual oxidase-2 and IL-6 play important roles in GPR43-mediated skin inflammation. The current study suggests that GPR43 activation in psoriatic patients may lead to aggravation of psoriatic inflammation.