Food & function

Chemical characterization of a novel polysaccharide ASKP-1 from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seed and its macrophage activation via MAPK, PI3k/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells.

PMID 28251195


The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of the purified Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seed polysaccharide (ASKP-1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Chemical characteristic analysis revealed that ASKP-1 consisted of 14.1% mannose, 56.9% glucose and 19.6% galactose with the average molecular weight of 9.08 × 10(5) Da and the mixed glycan backbone structure containing 1→4)-Glcp (39.8%), 1→6)-Galp (18.8%), 1→3,6)-Manp (19.6%), 1→)-Glcp (10.8%), 2→6)-Manp (4.0%) and 2→3,5)-Araf (7.0%). In vitro studies showed that ASKP-1 markedly induced the release of cytotoxic molecules (NO and ROS) and secretion of the cytokines (TNF-α, INF-β, and IL-6) and significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, TLR4 was found to be a recognized target of ASKP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, including phosphorylated ERK, JNK, p38 and Akt, were rapidly activated by ASKP-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, ASKP-1 was found to cause the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor NF-κB subunit p65 and the degradation of IκB-α in RAW264.7 macrophages. All these findings suggest that MAPK, PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways are involved in ASKP-1-induced macrophage activation, and ASKP-1 is a potential immunomodulating function food.