Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie

Effect of diterpenoid kaurenoic acid on genotoxicity and cell cycle progression in gastric cancer cell lines.

PMID 28273639


The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of kaurenoic acid, obtained from copaiba oil resin, in gastric cancer (GC) and a normal mucosa of stomach (MNP01) cell lines. The compound was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 30 and 60μg/mL. Comet and micronucleus assays were used to access its potential genotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of kaurenoic acid in cell cycle progression and in the transcription of genes involved in the control of the cell cycle: MYC, CCND1, BCL2, CASP3, ATM, CHK2 and TP53. Kaurenoic acid induced an increase on cell DNA damage or micronucleus frequencies on GC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The GC and MNP01 cell lines entering DNA synthesis and mitosis decreased significantly with kaurenoic acid treatment, and had an increased growth phase compared with non-treated cells. The treatment induced apoptosis (or necrosis) even at a concentration of 2.5μg/mL in relation to non-treated cells. GC cell lines presented reduced MYC, CCND1, BCL2 and CASP3 transcription while ATM, CHK2 and TP53 increased in transcription in relation to non-treated cells, especially at a concentration above 10μg/mL. The gene transcription in the MNP01 (non-treated non-cancer cell line) was designated as a calibrator for all the GC cell lines. In conclusion, our results showed that kaurenoic acid obtained from Copaifera induces DNA damage and increases the micronuclei frequency in a dose-dependent manner in GC cells, with a significant genotoxicity observed above the concentration of 5μg/mL. Moreover, this compound seems to be able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in GC cells.

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Kaurenoic acid, ≥95% (LC/MS-ELSD)