In vivo (Athens, Greece)

Chemopreventive Action by Ethanol-extracted Brazilian Green Propolis on Post-initiation Phase of Inflammation-associated Rat Colon Tumorigenesis.

PMID 28358699


Propolis has since long been utilized in numerous folk medicines with a variety of medicinal properties. In this study, the effects of ethanol-extracted (EEP) and water-extracted (WEP) Brazilian green propolis on the post-initiation phase of inflammation-associated rat colon tumorigenesis were directly compared. Male F344 rats at 6 weeks of age were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight twice during the first week, followed by 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for one week. After a 1-week no-treatment period, animals were administered either basal Oriental MF powdered diet, or 1% EEP or 1% WEP in the basal diet until week 32. Post-initiation treatment with EEP significantly reduced the multiplicity of colorectal carcinomas compared to the control (0.40±0.13/rat vs. 2.29±0.84/rat, respectively, p<0.05), and EEP also reduced the tumor volume. Immunohistochemically, expression of inflammation-associated proteins inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrotic factor alpha, nuclear factor kappa B and glutathione peroxidase-2 were significantly diminished in colorectal tumors from EEP-treated rats. Suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress, which had been triggered by DMH and promoted by DSS, was a primary mechanism by which EEP suppressed carcinogenesis.

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5,5-Dimethylhydantoin, 97%