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Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita

Illicit drugs in Emergency Department patients injured in road traffic accidents.


PMID 28361803

Abstract

Urine and blood samples from 1730 drivers involved in road accidents (July 2012 - December 2015) were analyzed for the evaluation of driving under influence of drug of abuse according to the Lombardia Region guideline. The 22.5% (95% CI 20.5 to 24.5) of urine screenings tested positive for at least one class of drugs. 10.6% (95% CI 9.2 to 12.1) of the 1730 drivers were under the influence of drug, being blood concentration above the cut-off limit for at least one active substance; the proportion of illicit drugs in blood was cocaine 5.7 % (95% CI 4.7 to 6.9), cannabinoids 3.7 % (95% CI 2.9 to 4.7), opiates 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1), methadone 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1), amphetamines 0.2% (95% CI 0.04 to 0.5). Trend in proportion showed similar percentage (about 5%) of cocaine and cannabinoids consumption in the last two years. Poly-drug of abuse consumption emerged in the 10.4% (95% CI 6.4 to 15.7) of the positive blood and alcohol was above the legal limit in 47% (95% CI 39.6 to 54.5) of the subjects driving under the influence of drugs.