Scientific reports

Phytic acid as alternative setting retarder enhanced biological performance of dicalcium phosphate cement in vitro.

PMID 28373697


Dicalcium phosphate cement preparation requires the addition of setting retarders to meet clinical requirements regarding handling time and processability. Previous studies have focused on the influence of different setting modifiers on material properties such as mechanical performance or injectability, while ignoring their influence on biological cement properties as they are used in low concentrations in the cement pastes and the occurrence of most compounds in human tissues. Here, analyses of both material and biological behavior were carried out on samples with common setting retardants (citric acid, sodium pyrophosphate, sulfuric acid) and novel (phytic acid). Cytocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro tests with osteoblastic (hFOB 1.19) and osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) cells. We found cytocompatibility was better for sodium pyrophosphate and phytic acid with a three-fold cell metabolic activity by WST-1 test, whereas samples set with citric acid showed reduced cell number as well as cell activity. The compressive strength (CS) of cements formed with phytic acid (CS = 13 MPa) were nearly equal to those formed with citric acid (CS = 15 MPa) and approximately threefold higher than for other setting retardants. Due to a proven cytocompatibility and high mechanical strength, phytic acid seems to be a candidate replacement setting retardant for dicalcium phosphate cements.