Cell biology international

AG490 suppresses interleukin-34-mediated osteoclastogenesis in mice bone marrow macrophages.

PMID 28378938


Interleukin-34 (IL-34) has been recently identified as a novel cytokine, substituting for the function of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), a pivotal osteoclastogenic factor involved in bone-related diseases (e.g., osteomyelitis of the jaws). However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of IL-34 in receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We found that IL-34 alone significantly maintained the survival of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and enhanced the expression of the osteoclast-related genes TRAP, Ctsk, and NFATc1, as well as TRAP-positive multinucleated cells combined with RANKL, which can be reversed by AG490. Conversely, AG490 did not affect the M-CSF-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the presence of RANKL. The protein expression of p-STAT3 in BMMs was enhanced by IL-34 combined with RANKL compared with RANKL alone, and AG490 inhibited the expression of p-SATA3 at protein level in the IL-34 plus RANKL group, resulting in significantly increased Smad7 expression. This study demonstrated for the first time that IL-34 may play a crucial role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of BMMs, stimulating p-STAT3 expression, and inhibiting the expression of Smad7 in the absence of M-CSF.