Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)

The use of a 0.20 μm particulate matter filter decreases cytotoxicity in lung epithelial cells following air-liquid interface exposure to motorcycle exhaust.

PMID 28477553


This study was designed to investigate whether the use of a 0.20 μm particulate matter (PM) filter reduced the cytotoxicity induced by motorcycle exhaust (ME), a mixture of gases and particles, in lung epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface (ALI) inserts. The concentrations of PM, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons (THC), total volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides in both filtered ME (fME) by a 0.20 μm filter and non-filtered ME (non-fME) were measured. Lung epithelial cells were exposed to clean air, fME, or non-fME in the ALI chamber. Cell relative viabilities (CRV) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined. Our results revealed that PM2.5 was the main compound of PM in ME. After filtration, PM and THC levels were significantly reduced, as compared with non-fME. When compared with the clean air exposed group, the CRV in both fME and non-fME-exposed group was significantly reduced (p < 0.001), while their ROS generation were markedly increased (p < 0.001). When compared with non-fME-exposed group, the CRV and ROS generation were significantly improved following fME exposure (p < 0.05). As a result, of PM and THC concentrations were decreased approximately 90% and 22.71%, respectively, the CRV was improved from 40.4% (non-fME) to 55.7% (fME), and the increased ROS generation by non-fME was decreased about 51.6%. When BEAS-2B cells were exposed to fME, a time-dependent reduction in CRV was observed. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ME-exposure in the ALI system induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses. The addition of a 0.20 μm PM filter significantly modifies the particulate composition in PM and the concentration of THC, and shows protective effects by improving the survival of exposed lung epithelial cells and reducing the ROS generation. Therefore, emission factors such as different size of PM and THC from motorcycles may play a role in ME-induced toxicity.