Current biology : CB

Dynein-Driven Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport Is Triphasic in C.xa0elegans Sensory Cilia.

PMID 28479320


Cytoplasmic dynein-2 powers retrograde intraflagellar transport that is essential for cilium formation and maintenance. Inactivation of dynein-2 by mutations in DYNC2H1 causes skeletal dysplasias, and it remains unclear how the dynein-2 heavy chain moves in cilia. Here, using the genome-editing technique to produce fluorescent dynein-2 heavy chain in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show by high-resolution live microscopy that dynein-2 moves in a surprising way along distinct ciliary domains. Dynein-2 shows triphasic movement in the retrograde direction: dynein-2 accelerates in the ciliary distal region and then moves at maximum velocity and finally decelerates adjacent to the base, which may represent a physical obstacle due to transition zone barriers. By knocking the conserved ciliopathy-related mutations into the C. elegans dynein-2 heavy chain, wexa0find that these mutations reduce its transport speed and frequency. Disruption of the dynein-2 tail domain, light intermediate chain, or intraflagellar transport (IFT)-B complex abolishes dynein-2's ciliary localization, revealing their important roles inxa0ciliary entry of dynein-2. Furthermore, our affinity purification and genetic analyses show that IFT-A subunits IFT-139 and IFT-43 function redundantly to promote dynein-2 motility. These results reveal the molecular regulation of dynein-2 movement in sensory cilia.