BMC cancer

Identification of endonuclease domain-containing 1 as a novel tumor suppressor in prostate cancer.

PMID 28532481


Endonuclease domain containing 1 (ENDOD1) is implicated in tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of multiple tumors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ENDOD1 in prostate cancer (PCa). Immunohistochemistry were performed in 30 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 50 cases of PCa to identify its association with clinicopathological characteristics. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect ENDOD1 mRNA and protein expression in normal prostatic epithelial and PCa cell lines. MTT assays were employed to determine the effect of cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to explore the cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects. Transwell migration and invasion assays were done to evaluate changes in the ability of cell migration and invasion. Immunoreactivity scores of ENDOD1 showed no statistical difference between BPH and low-grade PCa, whereas lower immunostaining scores were observed in high-grade compared with low-grade PCa. Real-time PCR data indicated that ENDOD1 mRNA expression was markedly increased in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells and decreased in PC3 and DU145 cells compared to the normal epithelial cells RWPE1. Western blot showed that androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells had the highest protein expression level of ENDOD1, whereas castration-resistant PCa cell lines PC3 and DU145 had significantly lower protein levels. Meanwhile, overexpression of ENDOD1 suppressed cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of ENDOD1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. No apoptotic effects occurred upon manipulation of ENDOD1 expression. Our results indicate that ENDOD1 is a novel tumor suppressor in PCa, which may be employed as a new drug target of preventing progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

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EHU027571 MISSION® esiRNA, esiRNA human ENDOD1 (esiRNA1)