Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

Adulthood Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Exacerbates the Neurotoxic and Inflammatory Effects of Rotenone in the Substantia Nigra.

PMID 28533741


Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most neurodegenerative disorder with a regional decrease of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Despite intense exploration, the etiology of PD progressive process remains unclear. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of systemic inflammation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neurotoxicity of rotenone (ROT) on exacerbating DA neuron lesion. Male SD adulthood rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Seven months later, rats were subcutaneously given ROT five times a week for consecutive 4 weeks. Rat behavior changes were assessed via rotarod and open-field tests. Brain SN was immunostained to evaluate DA neuronal loss and microglia activation. Striatum DA and its metabolites levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrochemistry. The protein levels of α-synuclein (α-Syn), inflammatory factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation were detected by western blotting analysis. Results indicated that no significant difference between the control and LPS alone groups was shown. Compared with ROT alone group, LPS combined with ROT significantly reduced motor activity and induced SN DA neurons loss accompanied by the decreased contents of striatum DA and its metabolites. Furthermore, LPS together with ROT enhanced microglia activation and the increased expressions of α-Syn and inflammatory factors and also MAPK signaling pathway activation. However, LPS alone had no significant effects on the above parameters. These findings suggest that adulthood exposure to LPS exacerbates the neurotoxic and inflammatory effects of ROT in the SN.