Cell death & disease

Damage-induced neuronal endopeptidase (DINE) enhances axonal regeneration potential of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury.

PMID 28569783


Damage-induced neuronal endopeptidase (DINE)/endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1) is a membrane-bound metalloprotease that we identified as a nerve regeneration-associated molecule. The expression of DINE is upregulated in response to nerve injury in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, while its transcription is regulated by the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a potent hub-transcription factor for nerve regeneration. Despite its unique hallmark of injury-induced upregulation, the physiological relevance of DINE in injured neurons has been unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that the expression of DINE is upregulated in injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a coordinated manner with that of ATF3 after optic nerve injury, whereas DINE and ATF3 are not observed in any normal retinal cells. Recently, we have generated a mature DINE-deficient (KO(Tg)) mouse, in which exogenous DINE is overexpressed specifically in embryonic motor neurons to avoid aberrant arborization of motor nerves and lethality after birth that occurs in the conventional DINE KO mouse. The DINE KO(Tg) mice did not show any difference in retinal structure and the projection to brain from that of wild-type (wild type) mice under normal conditions. However, injured RGCs of DINE KO(Tg) mice failed to regenerate even after the zymosan treatment, which is a well-known regeneration-promoting reagent. Furthermore, a DINE KO(Tg) mouse crossed with a Atf3:BAC Tg mouse, in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is visualized specifically in injured RGCs and optic nerves, has verified that DINE deficiency leads to regeneration failure. These findings suggest that injury-induced DINE is a crucial endopeptidase for injured RGCs to promote axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury. Thus, a DINE-mediated proteolytic mechanism would provide us with a new therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

C6499 CTB, ≥98% (HPLC)