Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

Functional Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Tears of Patients With Glaucoma.

PMID 28586796


To evaluate the differential expression of tear matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in of patients with various forms of glaucoma. Tear samples were collected with a Schirmer's strip from 148 eyes of 113 patients (medically naïve patients with primary open-angle [POAG] or angle closure glaucoma [PACG] and those with pseudoexfoliation syndrome [PXF] or glaucoma [PXG]). These were compared to patients undergoing cataract surgery (controls) for this cross-sectional study. Functional activities of tear MMP-9 and MMP-2 were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Tenon's capsules (n = 15) were harvested from the inferior quadrant in those undergoing cataract surgery and protein expression of MMP-9 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress-induced effects on in vitro activities of MMP-9 in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells were analyzed. The MMP-9 activity in tears was increased significantly in POAG, (n = 27), PACG (n = 24), and PXF (n = 40) eyes compared to controls (n = 35), and was increased significantly in eyes with glaucoma compared to moderate/severe glaucoma (P < 0.001). The MMP-9 expression was significantly lower in PXG (n = 22) eyes. Immunohistochemistry of Tenon's capsule revealed increased expression of MMP-9 in primary glaucoma eyes. Increased MMP-9 activity was seen in in vitro by gelatin zymography and was confirmed by Western and immunofluorescent assay on HTM upon 800 and 1000 μM H2O2-induced stress for 2 to 3 hours with approximately 80% cell death. Increased tear MMP-9 activity in early glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation syndrome suggesting activation of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation can be used as a tear-based predictive biomarker. Decreased expression in advanced stages suggests exhaustion of the degradation response.