Journal of cell science

Control of mitochondrial homeostasis by endocytic regulatory proteins.

PMID 28596240


Mitochondria play essential roles in cellular energy processes, including ATP production, control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. While mitochondrial function is regulated by the dynamics of fusion and fission, mitochondrial homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Recent studies implicate dynamin-2 and dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1, also known as DNM1L), as GTPases involved in mitochondrial fission. Here, we identify the ATPase and endocytic protein EHD1 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial fission. EHD1 depletion induces a static and elongated network of mitochondria in the cell. However, unlike dynamin-2 and Drp1, whose depletion protects cells from staurosporine-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, EHD1-depleted cells remain sensitive to staurosporine, suggesting a different mechanism for EHD1 function. Recent studies have demonstrated that VPS35 and the retromer complex influence mitochondrial homeostasis either by Mul1-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of the fusion protein Mfn2, or by removal of inactive Drp1 from the mitochondrial membrane. We demonstrate that EHD1 and its interaction partner rabankyrin-5 interact with the retromer complex to influence mitochondrial dynamics, likely by inducing VPS35-mediated removal of inactive Drp1 from mitochondrial membranes. Our study sheds light on mitochondrial dynamics, expanding a new paradigm of endocytic protein regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis.