Metabolic brain disease

Clinical and molecular genetic features of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients in Chinese families.

PMID 28623566


Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid-storage disease caused by mutations in CYP27A1. Current publications of Chinese CTX were mainly based on case reports. Here we investigated the clinical manifestations, genetic features in Chinese CTX patients. The clinical materials of 4 Chinese CTX pedigrees were collected. The genetic testing was done by polymerase chain reaction plus Sanger sequencing. The features of Chinese CTX patients reported previously were also reviewed. Three novel mutations of p.Arg513Cys, c.1477-2A > C in family 1 and p.Arg188Stop in family 4 (NM 000784.3) in CYP27A1 were found. The probands in our study manifested cerebellar ataxia, tendon xanthoma and spastic paresis in family 1 and 4, tendon xanthoma plus spastic paraparesis in family 2, asymptomatic tendon xanthoma in family 3. Three known mutations of p.Arg137Gln, p.Arg127Trp and p.Arg405Gln were found respectively in Family 2, 3 and 4. For the Chinese patients reviewed, the most common findings were xanthomatosis (100%), pyramidal signs (100%), cerebellar ataxia (66.7%), cognitive impairment (66.7%), cataracts (50.0%), and peripheral neuropathy (33.3%). Chronic diarrhea was infrequently seen (5.6%). No mutation was found associated with any given clinical features. We identified 3 novel mutations in CYP27A1. In Chinese CTX patients, xanthomatosis was the most common symptom while cataracts and chronic diarrhea were less frequent. The special features in Chinese CTX patients might caused by the lack of serum cholestanol test and should be confirmed in larger number of patients in the future.