Journal of dairy science

Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress on metabolic and stress signaling and kidney-specific functions in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

PMID 28624282


Recent studies demonstrated induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tissues of cows after parturition, but knowledge about the effect of ER stress on important cellular processes, such as critical signaling and metabolic pathways, in cattle is scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ER stress induction on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBF1) pathway in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a widely used in vitro model in ruminant research. To consider the kidney origin of MDBK cells, the effect on renal distal tubular cell-specific functions, such as transport processes and regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, was also studied. Treatment of MDBK cells with 2 different ER stress inducers, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM), strongly induced ER stress as evident from induction of ER stress target genes, increased phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase, and enhanced splicing of X-box binding protein 1. The TM decreased the protein concentration of NF-κB p50 and the mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes. Likewise, TG decreased the mRNA concentration of tumor necrosis factor and tended to decrease NF-κB p50 protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes. The mRNA levels of most of the Nrf2 target genes investigated were reduced by TG and TM in MDBK cells. Both ER stress inducers reduced the mRNA levels of SREBF1 and its target genes in MDBK cells. Interestingly, TG decreased, but TM increased the mRNA level of the Ca(2+) binding protein calbindin 1, whereas the mRNA level of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase 1 remained unchained. The mRNA level of the cytochrome P450 component 24A1 involved in 1α-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3 was strongly elevated, whereas the mRNA level of the cytochrome P450 component 27A1 catalyzing the breakdown of 1,25(OH)2D3 was markedly reduced by both ER stress inducers. The concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the supernatant of MDBK cells was increased by approximately 15% by both TG and TM. The present study indicates that under conditions of ER stress, critical signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, Nrf2, and SREBF1, are inhibited, whereas the formation of 1,25(OH)2D3 is stimulated in bovine MDBK cells. Future studies are necessary to clarify the physiological relevance of these findings.