Redox biology

Offsetting the impact of smoking and e-cigarette vaping on the cerebrovascular system and stroke injury: Is Metformin a viable countermeasure?

PMID 28646795


Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury. Herein we provide evidence that likewise to TS, chronic e-Cigarette (e-Cig) vaping can be prodromal to the loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and vascular inflammation as well as act as a promoting factor for the onset of stroke and worsening of post-ischemic brain injury. In addition, recent reports have shown that Metformin (MF) treatment before and after ischemic injury reduces stress and inhibits inflammatory responses. Recent published data by our group revealead that MF promotes the activation of counteractive mechanisms mediated by the activation of Nrf2 which drastically reduce TS toxicity at the brain and cerebrovascular levels and protect BBB integrity. In this study we provide additional in vivo evidence showing that MF can effectively reduce the oxidative and inflammatory risk for stroke and attenuate post-ischemic brain injury promoted by TS and e-Cig vaping. Our data also suggest that MF administration could be extended as prophylactic care during the time window required for the renormalization of the risk levels of stroke following smoking cessation thus further studies in that direction are warrated.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

R9379 Rhodamine B isothiocyanate–Dextran, average mol wt ~70,000