Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine

Invalidation of mitophagy by FBP1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

PMID 28653874


Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Gene-expression correlations were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database and analyzed using cBioPortal. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic index were detected by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potentials were assessed with a JC-1 fluorescent sensor. Subcellular structures were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The intracellular distribution of translocase of outer membrane 20 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Our results indicated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 expression was negatively correlated with autophagy level in breast cancer. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 restrained autophagy activity by increasing the level of p62 and decreasing the levels of LC3 and Beclin 1. Additionally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 promoted cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of intracellular ROS and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved PARP, cleaved Caspase 3, and Bax and downregulating the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP, Caspase 3, and Bcl-2. Finally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 limited the efficient removal of diseased mitochondria and reduced the messenger RNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α, BNIP3L/NIX, and BNIP3. More importantly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 facilitated co-action between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, which may be important in the mechanism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated mitophagy inhibition. In summary, loss of mitophagy by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.