Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology

Caveolae Depletion Contributes to Vasorelaxant Effects of Chenodeoxycholic Acid.

PMID 28662517


High concentration of bile acids (BAs) induces hydrophobicity-dependent vasorelaxtant effects with hydrophobic BAs showing greater responses than hydrophilic BAs, of which the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Caveolae are invaginations on membranes of endothelial cells (ECs) entraping endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to prevent its activation, which plays a critical role in regulation of vascular function. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of caveolae in vasorelaxant effects of BAs. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) were used to represent hydrophobic and hydrophilic BA, respectively. Vascular responses of abdominal aorta were measured by isometric force recording. Morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression of total eNOS (t-eNOS) or phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) was determined by Western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) content was observed by fluorometric assay. We demonstrated that CDCA as well as Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), a commonly used reagent for cholesterol depletion, reduced potassium chloride (KCl)- or phenylephrine (PE)-elicited vasoconstriction (P < 0.05), and enhanced acetylcholine (Ach)-elicited vasodilatation (P < 0.05) in endothelium-intact abdominal aorta but not in endothelium-denuded or CA-treated vessels. CDCA and MCD, but not CA significantly disrupted caveolae structure on ECs of abdominal aorta which was recovered by cholesterol incubation (P < 0.05). Protein expression of t-eNOS was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and that of p-eNOS together with NO content was significantly increased in CDCA- and MCD- but not CA-treated vessels (P < 0.05) as compared with vehicle. The effect was reversed by either endothelium-denudation or cholesterol replenishment. Moreover, with cholesterol incubation, no significant differences were found in vascular responses among CDCA-, CA- or vehicle-treated vessels. These results indicate that CDCA diminishes caveolae on ECs of abdominal aorta promoting eNOS phosphorylation and NO production which contributes to its vasorelaxtant effect.