Cell death & disease

Pleiotropic effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling to control human chorionic mesenchymal stem cell physiology.

PMID 28703804


Chorionic stem cells represent a promising opportunity for regenerative medicine. A deeper understanding of the stimuli that regulate their physiology, could lead to innovative clinical approaches. We revealed the presence of multiple sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor isoforms in chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs). Their activation simultaneously propagated from the plasma membrane through Gi and other heterotrimeric G proteins and further diverged toward extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 and protein kinase D 1. At a functional level, S1P signaling inhibited CMSC migration, while promoting proliferation. Instead, a reduction of cell density was obtained when S1P was combined to treatments that increased cAMP intracellular concentration. Such surprising reduction of cell viability was relatively specific as it was not observed with stromal stem cells from bone marrow. Neither it was observed by activating analogous G proteins with bradykinin nor by inducing cell death via a cAMP-independent pathway. S1P could thus reveal novel keys to improve CMSC differentiation programs acting on cAMP concentration. Furthermore, S1P receptor agonists/antagonists could become instrumental in favoring CMSC engraftment by controlling cell motility.