The American journal of pathology

Smooth Muscle Nitric Oxide Responsiveness and Clinical Maturation of Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistulae.

PMID 28822538


The arteriovenous fistula is the preferred type of hemodialysis vascular access for patients with end-stage renal disease, but a high proportion of newly created fistulas fail to mature for use. Stenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia often is present in fistulas with maturation failure, suggesting that local mechanisms controlling vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation are important contributors to maturation failure. SMCs cultured from explants of vein tissue obtained at the time of fistula creation from 19 patients with end-stage renal disease were studied to determine whether smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is associated with fistula maturation outcomes. Nitric oxide-induced inhibition of smooth muscle cell migration, but not proliferation, was greater in cells from patients with subsequent fistula maturation success than from patients with subsequent fistula maturation failure (mean inhibition percentage, 17 versus 5.7, respectively; P = 0.035). Impaired nitric oxide responsiveness was associated with oxidation of the calcium regulatory protein, sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), and was reversed by overexpressing SERCA (1.8-fold increase in inhibition, P = 0.0128) or down-regulating Nox4-based NADPH oxidase (2.3-fold increase in inhibition; P = 0.005). Our data suggest that the nitric oxide responsiveness of SMC migration is associated with fistula maturation success and raises the possibility that therapeutic restoration of nitric oxide responsiveness through manipulation of local mediators may prevent fistula maturation failure.