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BMC ophthalmology

Bacterial pathogens associated with external ocular infections alongside eminent proportion of multidrug resistant isolates at the University of Gondar Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.


PMID 28830451

Abstract

External ocular infection is a public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of external ocular bacterial infections. A cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital among patients seeking health services at the Department of Ophthalmology from January to April, 2016. All patients with suspected external ocular infections were examined under slit lamp microscope. External ocular samples were collected using aseptic techniques. All samples were investigated by culture and bacteria were identified using standard methods. Drug susceptibility test was done using the Kirby-Bauer Disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). A total of 312 samples were collected and 58.3% were culture positive. The proportion of Gram positive bacterial pathogens was (88%), and Staphylococcus aureus (50.3%) was the predominantly isolated pathogen, followed by Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) (33.5%) and Klebsiella species (4.7%). Conjunctivitis was the dominant clinical feature, but a high positive result for bacterial pathogens was observed among patients with dacryocystitis cases. The Gram positive bacterial isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphinicol, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ceftriaxone. However, 65% of these Gram positive bacterial pathogens showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection was 24% and multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 87% of the isolated bacteria. Conjunctivitis was the dominant ophthalmic disease followed by blepharitis. The dominant bacteria species was S. aureus and MRSA infection is increasingly prevalent. The overall MDR bacterial pathogen proportion was very high. The high prevalence of MRSA and MDR bacterial pathogens dictate the need for effective prevention as important as for therapies.