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PloS one

Microgrooved-surface topography enhances cellular division and proliferation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.


PMID 28846679

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) fate is largely determined by the various topographical features and a range of extracellular matrix (ECM) components present in their niches. Apart from maintaining structural stability, they regulate cell morphology, division, proliferation, migration and differentiation among others. Traditional MSC cultures, which are mainly based on two-dimensional smooth surfaces of culture dishes and plates, do not provide topographical cues similar to in vivo three-dimensional niches, impacting various cellular processes. Therefore, we culture the mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs on microgrooved bearing surface, partially mimicking in vivo reticulated niche, to study its effect on morphology, pluripotency factor-associated stemness, cell division and rate of proliferation. Following culture, morphological features, and MSC-specific marker gene expression, such as CD29, CD44, Sca-1 along with HSC (Haematopoietic stem cell)-specific markers like CD34, CD45, CD11b were evaluated by microscopy and immunophenotyping, respectively. HSC is another type of bone marrow stem cell population, which concertedly interacts with MSC during various functions, including haematopoiesis. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells were further analyzed for gene expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors such as Oct3/4, Sox-2, Nanog and Myc, as well as differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Our results show that microgrooved surface-cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) expressed higher levels of expected cell surface and pluripotency-associated markers and proliferated more rapidly (2-3×fold) with higher percentage of cells in S/G2-M-phase, consequently giving rise to higher cell yield compared to standard culture flask-grown cells (MSCs), taken as control. Furthermore, both MSCs and MMSCs showed considerable accumulation of intracellular lipid-droplets, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and secretion of extracellular matrix that are characteristics of adipogenesis, osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, respectively.