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CNS neuroscience & therapeutics

Calmodulin inhibitor ameliorates cognitive dysfunction via inhibiting nitrosative stress and NLRP3 signaling in mice with bilateral carotid artery stenosis.


PMID 28851042

Abstract

Vascular dementia (VaD) is a heterogeneous brain disorder for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. We aimed to evaluate the effect of calmodulin inhibitor, DY-9836, and its loaded nanodrug carrier system on cognitive impairment and gain a better understanding of the protective mechanisms in mice with bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). DY-9836 (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or DY-9836 (0.25 mg/kg)-encapsulated polysialic acid-octadecylamine (PSA-ODA) micelles (PSA-ODA/DY) were given to BCAS mice for 4 weeks. Administration of DY-9836 or PSA-ODA/DY reduced escape latency in space exploration and working memory test compared with vehicle group. Vehicle-treated mice showed reduced phospho-CaMKII (Thr286/287) levels in the hippocampus, whereas partially restored by DY-9836 (1 mg/kg) or PSA-ODA/DY (0.25 mg/kg) treatment. In accordance with the pharmacological profile of DY-9836 observed during behavioral studies, experimental molecular and biochemical markers induced by BCAS, such as protein tyrosine nitration, Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β, were reduced by DY-9836 and PSA-ODA/DY treatment. These data disclose novel findings about the therapeutic potential of DY-9836, and its encapsulated nanodrug delivery system significantly enhanced the cognitive function via inhibitory effect on nitrosative stress and NLRP3 signaling in VaD mice.