Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology

The protease inhibitor E64d improves ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction in human aortic endothelial cells.

PMID 28854341


Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial dysfunction in human vascular endothelial cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor, blocks the elastolytic activity of cathepsin essential for vascular matrix remodeling and reduces neurovascular endothelial apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and the underling mechanisms of E64d on ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). HAECs were treated with various concentrations of ox-LDL (0-200 mg/L) for 24 h with or without E64d. The results showed that E64d attenuated ox-LDL-induced increase in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentration and reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, prevented ox-LDL-induced reduction in cell viability and migration ability of HAECs. E64d decreased the protein expression of cathepsin B (CTSB), Beclin 1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II, but not p62. LC3 puncta and autophagosome formation were also reduced by E64d in HAECs. Moreover, E64d decreased the production of MDA and increased the activity of SOD. The results showed that E64d ameliorated ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction in HAECs.