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Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications

Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on the biological behavior of osteoblasts on porous titanium alloy scaffolds: An in vitro and in vivo study.


PMID 28866219

Abstract

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used in patients with fresh fractures, delayed union and non-union to enhance bone healing and improve functional outcome. However, there were few studies concerning the effects of LIPUS on the biological behavior of osteoblasts on porous scaffolds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LIPUS on the biological behavior of osteoblasts on porous titanium-6aluminum-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Scaffolds were randomly divided into an ultrasound group and a control group. Mouse pre-osteoblast cells were cultured with porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds in vitro. The effects of LIPUS on the biological behavior of osteoblasts were evaluated by observing the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and ingrowth depth on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. In addition, scaffolds were implanted into rabbit mandibular defects in vivo. The effects of LIPUS on bone regeneration were evaluated via micro-CT, fluorescent staining and toluidine blue staining. The results revealed that osteoblast adhered well to the scaffolds, and there was no significant difference in the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium value between the ultrasound group and the control group (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, ultrasound promoted the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels and ingrowth depth of the cells on the scaffolds (p<0.05). In addition, micro-CT and histomorphological analysis showed that the volume and amount of new bone formation were increased and that bone maturity was improved in the ultrasound group compared to the control group. These results indicate that LIPUS promotes osteoblast differentiation as well as enhances bone ingrowth in porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds, and promotes bone formation and maturity in porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds.