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Cancer genomics & proteomics

Histone Deacetylases as New Therapeutic Targets in Triple-negative Breast Cancer: Progress and Promises.


PMID 28870998

Abstract

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 gene. It comprises approximately 15-20% of breast cancers (BCs). Unfortunately, TNBC's treatment continues to be a clinical problem because of its relatively poor prognosis, its aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapies, leaving chemotherapy as the mainstay of treatment. It is essential to find new therapies against TNBC, in order to surpass the resistance and the invasiveness of already existing therapies. Given the fact that epigenetic processes control both the initiation and progression of TNBC, there is an increasing interest in the mechanisms, molecules and signaling pathways that participate at the epigenetic modulation of genes expressed in carcinogenesis. The acetylation of histone proteins provokes the transcription of genes involved in cell growth, and the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is frequently up-regulated in many malignancies. Unfortunately, in the field of BC, HDAC inhibitors have shown limited effect as single agents. Nevertheless, their use in combination with kinase inhibitors, autophagy inhibitors, ionizing radiation, or two HDAC inhibitors together is currently being evaluated. HDAC inhibitors such as suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), sodium butyrate, mocetinostat, panobinostat, entinostat, YCW1 and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentanamide have shown promising therapeutic outcomes against TNBC, especially when they are used in combination with other anticancer agents. More studies concerning HDAC inhibitors in breast carcinomas along with a more accurate understanding of the TNBC's pathobiology are required for the possible identification of new therapeutic strategies.