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Environmental monitoring and assessment

Risk assessment and monitoring of dinotefuran and its metabolites for Chinese consumption of apples.


PMID 28948413

Abstract

Residues of dinotefuran and its metabolites, 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine (DN), in apple were investigated using a "QuEChERS" (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) pretreatment and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) of dinotefuran, UF, and DN in apples were 0.011-0.960 and 0.037-3.200 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of dinotefuran, UF, and DN in apple ranged from 70.0 to 83.6% with relative standard deviations less than 13%. A formulation of 20% water-dispersible dinotefuran granules was sprayed at 1-1.5-fold the recommended dose 3-4 times on apple trees. Total terminal residues of dinotefuran in apple were less than 2 mg/kg, which is the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Japan. When following the recommended application guidelines, dinotefuran is unlikely to present significant health concerns to the Chinese population because the risk quotient (RQ) is less than 100%. This work could provide guidance for the safe use of dinotefuran and serve as a reference for the establishment of a maximum residue limit of dinotefuran in apple in China.

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Dinotefuran, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
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