Biochemistry and biophysics reports

An appropriate loading control for western blot analysis in animal models of myocardial ischemic infarction.

PMID 28955798


An appropriate loading control is critical for Western blot analysis. Housekeeping proteins (HKPs), such as β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin, are commonly used to normalize protein expression. But HKP expression can be impacted by certain experimental conditions, such as ischemic myocardial infarction. This study was undertaken to look for an appropriate loading control for western blot analysis of ischemic myocardium. Myocardial ischemic infarction was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 mice. The heart tissue samples from different areas and time points after surgery were subjected to western blot or gel staining. The level of β-actin, GAPDH, β-tubulin, and total protein were tested. The total protein level was consistent in all groups, whereas the protein level of β-tubulin and β-actin were different in all groups. However, the protein level of GAPDH was stable in the Rhesus monkey model. We concluded that total protein was the most appropriate internal control in different stages of myocardial ischemic disease of various animal models. GAPDH is a reliable internal control only for ischemic myocardium of Rhesus monkey.