Scientific reports

Regulation of antilipopolysaccharide factors, ALFPm3 and ALFPm6, in Penaeus monodon.

PMID 28978934


ALFPm6, a member of antimicrobial peptide in the antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) family from Penaeus monodon, plays important roles in shrimp immunity against pathogens. However, its antimicrobial activity and underlying mechanism have not been reported. The synthetic cyclic ALFPm6#29-52 peptide (cALFPm6#29-52) corresponding to the ALFPm6 LPS-binding domain can agglutinate and exhibited bacterial killing activity toward a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli 363 and Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus megaterium, Aerococcus viridans, and Micrococcus luteus, with MIC values of 25-50 μM. Specifically, ALFPm6 and ALFPm3, the most abundant ALF isoforms, are different in terms of gene expression patterns upon pathogen infections. Herein, the regulation of ALFPm3 and ALFPm6 gene expression was studied. The 5'-upstream and promoter sequences were identified and the putative transcription factor (TF)-binding sites were predicted. The narrow down assay indicated that the ALFPm3 promoter and partial promoter of the ALFPm6 active regions were located at nucleotide positions (-814/+302) and (-282/+85), respectively. Mutagenesis of selected TF-binding sites revealed that Rel/NF-κB (-280/-270) of ALFPm3 and C/EBPβ (-88/-78) and Sp1 (-249/-238) sites of ALFPm6 were the activator-binding sites. Knockdown of the PmMyD88 and PmRelish genes in V. harveyi-infected shrimp suggested that the ALFPm3 gene was regulated by Toll and IMD pathways, while the ALFPm6 gene was regulated by the Toll pathway.