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Nature communications

NMI and IFP35 serve as proinflammatory DAMPs during cellular infection and injury.


PMID 29038465

Abstract

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) trigger innate immune response and exacerbate inflammation to combat infection and cellular damage. Identifying DAMPs and revealing their functions are thus of crucial importance. Here we report that two molecules, N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and interferon-induced protein 35 (IFP35) act as DAMPs and are released by activated macrophages during lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock or acetaminophen-induced liver injury. We show that extracellular NMI and IFP35 activate macrophages to release proinflammatory cytokines by activating nuclear factor-κB through the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway. In addition, the serum levels of NMI are increased in patients who succumbed to severe inflammation. NMI deficiency reduces inflammatory responses and mortality in mouse models of sepsis and liver injury. We therefore propose that extracellular NMI and IFP35 exacerbate inflammation as DAMPs, making them potential therapeutic targets for clinical intervention.Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) are important mediators of innate immunity. Here the authors show that N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and interferon-induced protein 35 (IFP35) act as DAMPs to promote inflammation by activating macrophages via the Toll-like receptor 4 and NF-κB pathways.