PloS one

Effects of a non-cyclodextrin cyclic carbohydrate on mouse melanoma cells: Characterization of a new type of hypopigmenting sugar.

PMID 29045474


Cyclic nigerosyl nigerose (CNN) is a cyclic tetrasaccharide that exhibits properties distinct from other conventional cyclodextrins. Herein, we demonstrate that treatment of B16 melanoma with CNN results in a dose-dependent decrease in melanin synthesis, even under conditions that stimulate melanin synthesis, without significant cytotoxity. The effects of CNN were prolonged for more than 27 days, and were gradually reversed following removal of CNN. Undigested CNN was found to accumulate within B16 cells at relatively high levels. Further, CNN showed a weak but significant direct inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase, suggesting one possible mechanism of hypopigmentation. While a slight reduction in tyrosinase expression was observed, tyrosinase expression was maintained at significant levels, processed into a mature form, and transported to late-stage melanosomes. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that CNN treatment induced drastic morphological changes of Pmel17-positive and LAMP-1-positive organelles within B16 cells, suggesting that CNN is a potent organelle modulator. Colocalization of both tyrosinase-positive and LAMP-1-positive regions in CNN-treated cells indicated possible degradation of tyrosinase in LAMP-1-positive organelles; however, that possibility was ruled out by subsequent inhibition experiments. Taken together, this study opens a new paradigm of functional oligosaccharides, and offers CNN as a novel hypopigmenting molecule and organelle modulator.

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Isomaltitol, ≥98% (HPLC)