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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Palmitate Conditions Macrophages for Enhanced Responses toward Inflammatory Stimuli via JNK Activation.


PMID 29061766

Abstract

Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and elevated levels of circulating saturated fatty acids, which trigger inflammatory responses by engaging pattern recognition receptors in macrophages. Because tissue homeostasis is maintained through an adequate balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages, we assessed the transcriptional and functional profile of M-CSF-dependent monocyte-derived human macrophages exposed to concentrations of saturated fatty acids found in obese individuals. We report that palmitate (C16:0, 200 μM) significantly modulates the macrophage gene signature, lowers the expression of transcription factors that positively regulate IL-10 expression (MAFB, AhR), and promotes a proinflammatory state whose acquisition requires JNK activation. Unlike LPS, palmitate exposure does not activate STAT1, and its transcriptional effects can be distinguished from those triggered by LPS, as both agents oppositely regulate the expression of CCL19 and