PLoS pathogens

Pivotal role for the ESCRT-II complex subunit EAP30/SNF8 in IRF3-dependent innate antiviral defense.

PMID 29084253


The activation of interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), characterized by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the latent transcription factor, is central to initiating innate antiviral responses. Whereas much has been learned about the upstream pathways and signaling mechanisms leading to IRF3 activation, how activated IRF3 operates in the nucleus to control transcription of IFNs remains obscure. Here we identify EAP30 (a.k.a, SNF8/VPS22), an endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-II subunit, as an essential factor controlling IRF3-dependent antiviral defense. Depletion of EAP30, but not other ESCRT-II subunits, compromised IRF3-dependent induction of type I and III IFNs, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and chemokines by double-stranded RNA or viruses. EAP30, however, was dispensable for the induction of inflammatory mediators of strict NF-κB target. Significantly, knockdown of EAP30 also impaired the establishment of an antiviral state against vesicular stomatitis virus and hepatitis C virus, which are of distinct viral families. Mechanistically, EAP30 was not required for IRF3 activation but rather acted at a downstream step. Specifically, a fraction of EAP30 localized within the nucleus, where it formed a complex with IRF3 and its transcriptional co-activator, CREB-binding protein (CBP), in a virus-inducible manner. These interactions promoted IRF3 binding to target gene promoters such as IFN-β, IFN-λ1 and ISG56. Together, our data describe an unappreciated role for EAP30 in IRF3-dependent innate antiviral response in the nucleus.

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EHU008451 MISSION® esiRNA, esiRNA targeting human SNF8 (esiRNA1)