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Leptin regulates Granzyme-A, PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression in T cell to control visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice.


PMID 29116252

Abstract

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is responsible for several deaths in malnourished children accompanied by diminished circulating leptin and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Typically, leptin deficiency is associated with the Th2 polarization that markedly coincides with the pathogenesis of VL. The aim of the present study was to unravel the prophylactic role of leptin in malnutrition-coupled VL mice. Interestingly, we observed that L. donovani infection itself reduces the serum leptin levels in malnutrition. Exogenous leptin restored severe body weight loss and parasite load in the spleen and liver of malnourished infected mice compared to controls. Leptin increases functional CD8+ T-cell population, Granzyme-A expression down-regulates anergic T-cell markers such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. It was also noticed that, leptin suppresses GM-CSF mRNA expression in parasite favored monocytes and reduced arginase activity in bone marrow derived macrophage indicate macrophages dependent T-cell activation and proliferation. Leptin-induced IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α cytokines in the culture supernatant of splenocytes upon soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) stimulation and significantly up-regulates serum IgG2a titers, which help to generate Th1 immune response in VL. Furthermore, leptin induced a granulomatous response and restored L. donovani induced tissue degeneration in the liver. Altogether, our findings suggest the exogenous leptin can restore T cell mediated immunity in malnourished VL mice.

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