Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology

Andrographolide Induces Autophagic Cell Death and Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells in An Autophagy-Dependent Manner.

PMID 29197865


Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone tissue. Although treatment effectiveness has improved, the OS survival rate has fluctuated in recent years. Andrographolide (AG) has been reported to have antitumor activity against a variety of tumors. Our aim was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of AG in human osteosarcoma. Cell viability and morphological changes were assessed by MTT and live/dead assays. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, DAPI, and caspase-3 assays. Autophagy was detected with mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus transfection and western blot. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing assay and Transwell® experiments. AG dose-dependently reduced the viability of osteosarcoma cells. No increase in apoptosis was detected in AG-treated human OS MG-63 and U-2OS cells, and the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD did not attenuate AG-induced cell death. However, AG induced autophagy by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR and enhancing JNK signaling pathways. 3-MA and Beclin-1 siRNA could reverse the cytotoxic effects of AG. In addition, AG inhibited the invasion and metastasis of OS, and this effect could be reversed with Beclin-1 siRNA. AG inhibits viability and induces autophagic death in OS cells. AG-induced autophagy inhibits the invasion and metastasis of OS.