Journal of clinical periodontology

Antagonists of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the periodontitis associated with type 2 diabetes and smoking.

PMID 29243300


This study evaluated the levels of sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf (DKK)-1 in the chronic periodontitis (CP) associated with type 2 diabetes (DM) and/or smoking. Relationships between SOST, DDK1, RANKL, OPG, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, and pathogens were assessed. The study population included non-diabetic non-smokers (control), non-smokers with DM (DM group), non-diabetic smokers (S group) and smokers with DM (SDM group), all with CP. Serum and gingival levels of SOST, DKK1, RANKL, OPG, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were evaluated by multiplex immunoassay. Gene expressions of these biomarkers and subgingival levels of pathogens were assessed by qPCR. Gingival protein and/or mRNA levels of DKK1 and SOST were higher in subjects with DM and/or smoking than in controls (p < .05). Serum levels of SOST were higher in the DM group than in controls (p < .05). DKK1 positively correlated with SOST in the DM, SDM and control groups (p < .05) at mRNA levels. DKK-1 and SOST correlated with pathogens, especially in both groups with DM. SOST and DKK1 were upregulated in patients with CP presenting DM and/or smoking. DM, alone or with smoking, particularly influenced the correlations of SOST and DKK1 with each other and with the other biomarkers mostly at mRNA levels, as well as with periodontal pathogens.