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American journal of physiology. Cell physiology

Acute and chronic resistance training downregulates select LINE-1 retrotransposon activity markers in human skeletal muscle.


PMID 29351416

Abstract

Herein, we examined if acute or chronic resistance exercise affected markers of skeletal muscle long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon activity. In study 1, 10 resistance-trained college-aged men performed three consecutive daily back squat sessions, and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before (Pre), 2 h following session 1 (Post1), and 3 days following session 3 (Post2). In study 2, 13 untrained college-aged men performed a full-body resistance training program (3 days/wk), and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before ( week 0) and ~72 h following training cessation ( week 12). In study 1, LINE-1 mRNA decreased 42-48% at Post1 and 2 ( P < 0.05), and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity trended downward at Post2 (-37%, P = 0.067). In study 2, LINE-1 mRNA trended downward at week 12 (-17%, P = 0.056) while LINE-1 promoter methylation increased (+142%, P = 0.041). Open reading frame (ORF)2p protein expression (-24%, P = 0.059) and RT activity (-26%, P = 0.063) also trended downward by week 12. Additionally, changes in RT activity versus satellite cell number were inversely associated ( r = -0.725, P = 0.008). Follow-up in vitro experiments demonstrated that 48-h treatments with lower doses (1 μM and 10 μM) of efavirenz and nevirapine (non-nucleoside RT inhibitors) increased myoblast proliferation ( P < 0.05). However, we observed a paradoxical decrease in myoblast proliferation with higher doses (50 μM) of efavirenz and delavirdine. This is the first report suggesting that resistance exercise downregulates markers of skeletal muscle LINE-1 activity. Given our discordant in vitro findings, future research is needed to thoroughly assess whether LINE-1-mediated RT activity enhances or blunts myoblast, or primary satellite cell, proliferative capacity.