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Oncotarget

New cGMP analogues restrain proliferation and migration of melanoma cells.


PMID 29435180

Abstract

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and displays high resistance to conventional chemotherapy underlining the need for new therapeutic strategies. The cGMP/PKG signaling pathway was detected in melanoma cells and shown to reduce migration, proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different cancer types. In this study, we evaluated the effects on cell viability, cell death, proliferation and migration of novel dimeric cGMP analogues in two melanoma cell lines (MNT1 and SkMel28). These new dimeric cGMP analogues, by activating PKG with limited effects on PKA, significantly reduced proliferation, migration and increased cell death. No decrease in cell viability was observed in non-tumor cells suggesting a tumor-specific effect. These effects observed in melanoma are possibly mediated by PKG2 activation based on the decreased toxic effects in tumor cell lines not expressing PKG2. Finally, PKG-associated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein (VASP), linked to cell death, proliferation and migration was found increased and with a change of subcellular localization. Increased phosphorylation of RhoA induced by activation of PKG may also contribute to reduced migration ability of the SkMel28 melanoma cell line when treated with cGMP analogues. These findings suggest that the cGMP/PKG pathway can be envisaged as a therapeutic target of novel dimeric cGMP analogues for the treatment of melanoma.