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International journal of biological macromolecules

Allantoin and hydantoin as new protein aggregation suppressors.


PMID 29505874

Abstract

Allantoin is widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and is composed of a hydantoin ring and a ureido group. Recent reports showed that allantoin suppresses thermal aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme (LYZ). However, structural insight into the properties of allantoin on protein aggregation and whether allantoin controls the aggregation of other proteins under different stress conditions remain unclear. Here we studied the structural properties of allantoin in terms of its effects on protein aggregation by comparing allantoin with urea and hydantoin. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of allantoin and its derivatives on the aggregation of LYZ, carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes (BCA), albumin from chicken egg white (OVA), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) by various stresses in comparison with arginine. These four proteins are widely different in charged state and molecular size. Allantoin suppressed the aggregation and inactivation of LYZ comparing to arginine without affecting the melting temperature of proteins, and was responsible for the slightly improved formation of soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of IgG with thermal and acidic stresses. In contrast, hydantoin increased the solubility of aromatic amino acids more effectively than arginine and allantoin. The structural properties underlying the observed effects of allantoin as an aggregation suppressor include hydrophobic interactions between hydantoin moiety and aromatic ring on the surface of proteins, which is reflected on the difference between allantoin and arginine. These results show that the backbone of hydantoin ring may be a new category of additives for development of small aggregation suppressors.

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156361
Hydantoin, 98%
C3H4N2O2