Brain research bulletin

Pentoxifylline prevents post-traumatic stress disorder induced memory impairment.

PMID 29559394


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure). PTX was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, brain derived neuroptrophic factor (BDNF), and epigenetics (histones) in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using enzymatic assays. The result revealed that SPS impaired both short- and long- term memory (P < 0.05). Use of PTX prevented memory impairment induced by SPS. Furthermore, PTX normalized SPS induced changes in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio, activity of catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), BDNF, and certain histones levels. In conclusion, the SPS model of PTSD-like behavior induced memory impairment, whereas PTX prevented this impairment possibly through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms, BDNF and epigenetic changes in the hippocampus.

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